Selasa, 25 Juni 2013

Noun Phrase

Pengertian Noun Phrase

Noun Phrase adalah frasa antara nounpronoun, atau number (berfungsi sebagai head) dan satu atau lebih modifier.
Ilustrasi
Frasa kata benda ini digunakan ketika single nountidak cukup spesifik untuk menunjuk suatu
kata benda.
Contoh Noun Phrase:
Anda ingin mengatakan ke teman ada bahwa seseorang wanita yang ada dikerumunan orang-orang adalah saudara anda. Maka anda dapat mengatakan:
The fair-skinned woman with a red T-shirt and black skirt is my sister.

Basic Noun Phrase
Komponen basic noun phrase terdiri dari:
§  determiners, yaitu: pre (multiplier, fraction, distributive, intensifier, exclamative), central (article, possessive, demonstrative), dan/atau post-determiner (number, quantifier).
§  head, yaitu: noun atau numeral/number.

Contoh basic noun phrase:
§  my bag
Keterangan: my= possessive, bag= head
§  the next page
Keterangan: the= article, next= number, page= head
Complex Noun Phrase
Komponen complex noun phrase terdiri dari:
§  Pre-modifiers, merupakan modifiers yang ditempatkan sebelum head, yaitu: determiners, adjective,adjective phrase , participle (active & passive), & kata benda lain.
§  Head, yaitu: nounpronoun, atau number, dan/atau
§  Post-Modifiers, merupakan modifiers yang ditempatkan setelah head, yaitu: prepositional phrase,participle (active & passive), to infinite, relative cause, dan complementation.
Contoh complex noun phrase:
§  A love letter put on my bag
Keterangan: a= determiner, love= kata benda lain, letter= head, put= past participle, on my bag= prepositional phrase
§  The rich in the world who cares with the poor
Keterangan: the= determiner, rich= adjective, in the world= prepositional phrase, who cares with the poor= relative clause

Some examples of noun phrases are underlined in the sentences below. The head noun appears in bold.
The election year politics are annoying for many people.
Almost every sentence contains at least one noun phrase.
Current economic weakness may be result of high energy prices.
Noun phrases can be identified by the possibility of pronoun substitution, as is illustrated in the examples below.
a. This sentence contains two noun phrases.
b. It contains them.
a. The subject noun phrase that is present in this sentence is long.
b. It is long.
a. Noun phrases can be embedded in other noun phrases.
b. They can be embedded in them.

COUNT AND NON-COUNT NOUNS
count noun is something we can count. It has a singular form and a plural form.
ex: one book, three books; a leg, two legs; an apple, six apples;
N.B. A singular count noun must have a Determiner .

non-count noun is something we don’t count. It has no plural form.
We use quantifiers before non-count nouns:
ex: fruit, some fruit; bread, a slice of bread; homework; a lot of homework; information, a little information

The following are non-count nouns:

Abstract nouns:
advice
art
beauty
confidence
courage
crime
education
enjoyment
experience
fun
grammar
happiness
education
hate


health
help
homework
honesty
hospitality
importance
information
intelligence
justice
knowledge
laughter
life
love
luck

music
news
noise
nutrition
patience
patience
pride
progress
slang
time
truth
unemployment
vocabulary
work





Groups with individual parts

cash
change
clothing
equipment
food
fruit
furniture
garbage

hardware
homework
jewelry
junk
junk
luggage
machinery
mail
makeup
money
news
postage
research
scenery
slang
traffic

Things with no definite form:

Liquids
beer
blood
coffee
cream
gasoline
honey
juice
milk
oil
shampoo
soup
tea
water
wine

Gases
air
carbon monoxide
fire
fog
hydrogen
oxygen
pollution
smoke
steam
Solids
butter
cheese
cotton
film
flour
glass
ice
ice cream
meat
powder
salt
soap
sugar
toothpaste
wood
wool

Things that have tiny parts too small to count

corn
dirt
dust

grass
hair
rice
salt
sugar
wheat

Natural phenomena

darkness
dew
electricity
fire
fog
gravity

heat
humidity
light
lightning
rain
snow
sunshine
thunder
weather
wind


Ailments

cancer
cholera
flu

heart disease
malaria
polio
smallpox
strep throat


Academic subjects

art
biology
chemistry
economics
engineering

history
linguistics
literature
mathematics
music
physics
poetry
psychology
science


Languages

Russian, Spanish, French, etc.

Words that can be count and non-count

Food (non-count)
chicken
lamb
liver
fish
Animal or animal part (count)
a chicken
a lamb
a liver
a fish
non-count
wine
food
fruit
meat
education
experience
count (means "a kind of ___")
a wine, wines
a food, foods
a fruit, fruits
a meat, meats
an education
an experience
non-count
glass (the material)

paper (the material)

iron (the metal)
fire (the gas)

time (an abstract idea)
count
a glass (something to put liquid in)
a paper (a report or newspaper)
an iron (for pressing clothes)
a fire (one specific occurrence of fire)
a time, times (a specific occurrence or period)
  
Determiners:
  
 Articles:

a/an (indefinite)
the (definite)

Demonstratives:
this
that
these
those
Possessives:

my
our
yours
their
her
his
its

Quantifiers:

some
a few
lots of
several
each
every
any
most
many
all
much
no

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